Frequently asked questions about psychodrama. FAQ

Pavel Kornienko

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1. General Questions

Psychodrama - what's this?

Psychodrama - this is one of the oldest methods of psychotherapy, which has already become a classic in its 90-something year history of development. Psychodrama is used in group and individual psychotherapy, psychological counseling, working with children and young people in learning skills, etc.

Psychodrama based on a variety of scenes, cast and situations that reflect real life or person, or his inner world. This allows you to explore the complexity of man, as in the external and the internal world - and to find constructive solutions to them.

In today's world is actively used psychodrama as an effective means of developing interpersonal skills, as well as for self-knowledge and self-development.

What is the main specificity of psychodrama?

Psychodramatic work usually involves playing a variety of scenes and situations. It's a bit like child's play, which has experience in all people. Playing usually has a rather "sketchy" appearance, minimally sufficient to see the model of customer behavior, call the experience or understanding of the structure of the situation. The group is playing with other people, and in individual therapy with chairs, and any items therapist.

This often makes it possible to playing quickly understand the problem situation and develop new ways of behaving in it than the classical therapeutic conversation.

But at the same time would be wrong to assume that only consists of psychodrama playing out scenes. For example, in individual work on the operation itself psychodramatic usually have 10-15 minutes of 60 - takes the rest of the therapeutic conversation and discussion activities.

Why the "psychodrama" is so strange?

Yes, in Russian the word "psychodrama", indeed, sounds very strange. Both the Greek roots that make up the word, can cause the Russian-speaking people are not the most pleasant association. The word "psychodrama" is derived from the Greek words psyche - the soul and drama - action. A more accurate transcription of the Russian language would be the phrase "treatment effect" or "treatment of mental processes."

What are the psychodramatic group?

In their tasks can be divided into groups of therapeutic, training and demonstration.

Group are very different in length, ranging from single two-hour meeting to a series of studies over the years.

They can be open or closed. In the private groups do not include new members, the group has already begun work.

Sometimes the group is any particular subject, but most teams are working on the actual needs of participants.

Groups can vary in forms of work: for example, one leader can make individual psychodramatic work with each member of the group, another group prefers the form of work.

Lead can combine psychodrama with other approaches, such as using the training elements in their work or the elements of art therapy.

Thus, all possible variations - countless.

2. Classic Questions

Does psychodrama something in common with the theater?

Very little. In psychodrama, we do not do anything to make something "to show the audience." What we're giving away in psychodrama, is an entirely different purpose, and quite different than in the theater. Psychodramatist use some "drama" of the word, but in psychodrama they have a different meaning.

What problems running psychodrama?

In psychodrama, like any of the large and classical methods of psychotherapy, there are no restrictions on the topics you can work with. Psychodramatic approaches to the study of "inner peace" and "interaction with others and with himself" for most of difficulties faced by the people.

How much should go to the psychodrama?

There is very individual and depends very much on their own goals man. Some people do enough to improve their condition after the difficult life circumstances. And other "a taste" and want to change in all spheres of life.

If a person is in a group or individual work serves as the protagonist (playing pieces about his life), most often it is this experience important for itself immediately.

If we talk about participation in the group, the average 90% of the weekly 3-month group (12 meetings) to the end of the third month, have a sufficiently clear understanding of the value of this process for their lives.

It is said to psychodrama many tears. Is this true?

Yes, it happens. In any method of psychotherapy when we come into contact with the painful topics, people are crying. But the tears - it does not measure the depth of the psychotherapeutic work. And not all people tend to cry, and it does not make them participate in psychodrama groups less effective.

Do you need acting skills to play a role in psychodrama?

Acting skills to psychodrama are not needed. On the contrary, if a person some time to cultivate the ability to "play" something, it's ability to interfere with him at first can be yourself in psychodramatic work.

Psychodrama - a new sect?

Of course not.

Psychodrama - a method of psycho-social outreach, and our institute conducts certified training programs, training specialists in this method.

3. Characteristics of method

Psychodrama works only with groups?

Historically, psychodrama has emerged as a method of group psychotherapy , psychodrama, and so a lot of money just to work with the group.

Later it became clear that many psychodramatic techniques are effective and in individual psychotherapeutic work, and sometimes even necessary to it. There is a trend that more and more professionals worldwide use psychodrama in individual work with clients. This direction is promising and rapidly developing nowadays.

In what areas are used psychodrama?

During his 90-year history of the development of a psychodrama used in various fields of psychological and social practice, and has accumulated a wealth of practical developments.

In psychodrama, there are two large "zones of use" - it might be a way to solve current difficulties rights, and may be a means to his self-knowledge and self-development.

Psychodrama is a very flexible methods of working with individuals and groups, it is effective in many different areas. Psychodrama is used:

  • As a method of group psychotherapy to work with normal people.
  • In the short-term individual psychotherapy and psychological counseling .
  • In the groups of self-awareness and personal growth.
  • In groups, teaching practical skills (such as business training, learning a foreign language).
  • In psychological counseling in preschool and school education.
  • In the psychological work with children and students. In working with adolescent groups (including those with behavioral problems).
  • Complex contingents, such as drug rehabilitation (worldwide), and in prison (the U.S.).
  • In organizational consulting, as well as a tool in project activities (eg, DAR).
  • In the research project on various aspects of social life, culture, art and history.

What is a monodrama?

Monodrama - a style of individual psychotherapy that is based on theory and technique of psychodrama. Usually in this style work therapists have psychodramatic training.

Since the word "psychodrama" is usually used to refer to this group psychodramatic work, "monodrama" call using psychodrama in individual therapy.

What for to use a psychodrama in individual work?

The psychodrama is effective in individual psychotherapy for the several reasons:

  • Psychodrama technicians well work with «usual clients» because they are clear and evident for mentality of any person. It increases overall performance and often gives to clients clear understanding of result.
  • The psychodrama is able to lean well in work against «cogitative metaphors» client, significant, important and natural to it. Thanks to what, does not demand from the client of development of language new to it or acceptance of other model of the world.
  • The support on psychodrama role interaction, allows the therapist to create exercises and "the experiments" possessing expressed developing and therapeutic effect for the client.
  • The psychodrama in the work often leans against socially-obvious forms of interaction between people (a meeting, conversation, farewell etc.). It increases connectivity of psychotherapeutic process with deep layers of cultural and personal experience that gives additional efficiency and ecological compatibility to work.

What develops psychodramatic training?

  • Psychodrama is developing a special kind of thought the therapist, which are called "psychodramatic thinking." This is a special way of understanding the mental processes, so, for example, some of its facets:
    • What is happening in the psyche is understood as a composition of interacting forces.
    • Characterology client can be understood through the reconstruction of the history of its interactions with other people in the past.
  • Psychodrama very effectively develops professional sensitivity to the emotional processes of others.
  • It is recognized that psychodramatic training is one of the best for the development of skills to understand and feel to the group process.
  • Psychodrama allows for the development of the variety of communicative skills, ie way of constructive engagement in a variety of situations.

What is different from the psychodrama of Hellinger Constellations?

Psychodrama is quite different from systemic family constellations by Hellinger. In the resemblance of these approaches have different and the theory and practice.

In order for anything to say about the differences, here are a few examples. Therapeutic effects psychodramatic work to a greater extent than in the alignment are achieved through:

  • Capacity development of empathy (understanding others), and reflection of itself.
  • The development of spontaneity: the freedom, openness and constructive, in collaboration with other people.
  • Learn new ways to interact with their states, feelings, fantasies, problems, desires, needs, and any other "objects of inner peace."
  • The interaction between the band members themselves. Psychodrama is much more than an arrangement, based their work on the classic group psychotherapy. And it is based on the interaction between the participants and the development of relations in the group. Through this group therapy gives people the opportunity to gradually acquire new interpersonal experience, which then carries over into real life.

Psychodrama - is a theater for an unbalanced and exalted personages?

By the way, maybe it would be great to make this theater - it might be useful. Unfortunately, the psychodrama - is quite another.

And if pro exaltation, there are two associations:

  • People that are commonly used word "exaltation" - not just a client in any type of group psychotherapy, psychodrama and well. But on the other hand, there is psihodramaterapii unique features that allow you to work effectively with this type of emotional response.
  • Psychodrama as a form of group psychotherapy is considered to be very useful for "non of theatrical" character types, for people who are closed in themselves, do not feel very comfortable around people who experience difficulty in interaction with others. Psychodramatic groups allow such people to get a new interpersonal experience - and it is important that, without any coercion or 'overstep by myself. "

How effective psychodrama?

In a professional environment psychodrama is comparable in overall performance with other classical psychotherapeutic approaches. In addition, there is a set of areas in which the 'efficiency index' psychodrama is slightly higher than the "average hospital", is:

  • short-term counseling;
  • group therapy (a combination works effectively and classical psychodrama group psychotherapy);
  • work with children and adolescents (including contingents of the complex);
  • group interactive learning with any knowledge and skills.


4. On psychodramatic group

What you need to know to go to psychodramatic group?

Especially do not need to know anything. If the group is the people who came to the first psychodrama, the director of the fly makes all the necessary explanations.

Who are the director of psychodrama?

Different methods of group leader of the group is called differently. In the psychodrama leader of the group called the director.

It took a single word, because the lead in psychodrama should be able to not only work group leader, but also to psychodramatic action.

How does the psychodramatic group?

Most often psychodramatic group undergo the classical scheme: # Warm up (a simple exercise, game or conversation at the beginning of the group.) # Action (psychodramatic work for one of the participants or the group action on the chosen topic.) # Schering (talk to after the special rules of and at the end of the group).

If the group takes over 2 hours, the stage is bigger. Usually always something that at the very beginning - the warm-up, and after any activity and at the end - sharing.

What is a warm-up?

Warming up - usually a simple exercise, game or conversation on a topic from which to start a group.

Warming up is done in order to enable participants to gradually attune to each other, and, last but not least - tune in to themselves and those topics that are relevant for them today.

In the classical scheme of psychodramatic heating was completed by the fact that several group members expressed their desire to make the group their personal psychodramatic work.

What is a "drama"? Who are the protagonist?

At certain moments group, usually when the team rallied and ready to work, the director asks, "Who now wants to work on some of his subject?" Usually a few people express their desire between them is determined by the order, and start playing psychodramatic.

Those playing on the psychodramatic "jargon" are called "drama." And the man who is now a customer of "Psycho Drama", is called the protagonist.

The "drama" is not necessarily there is something dramatic - it's just a short name that in the books referred to as "individual psychodramatic work."

How does the individual psychodramatic work?

Typically, individual psychodramatic work ("drama") begins with the fact that the director some time talking with the protagonist. The director asks the protagonist about the situation and asked what the protagonist would like to make myself into this work.

If the protagonist is difficult to determine the answers to these questions, then director of its supports and offers a variety of options. This conversation hang so that the director and protagonist agree that they will play and why.

Then begins the actual psychodramatic part, which consists of one or more scenes. And in order to create these scenes, director with the protagonist invite the group members to different roles.

What is a vignette?

Vignette - a short psychodramatic work, "the drama of a scene." Usually vignette lasts from 2 to 20 minutes, while the "drama" takes on average about an hour.

What is a group action? What they can be?

Group action - this is when the leader offers a whole group to do something. For example, a common option is to offer to talk about something in pairs or small groups, or to perform some simple exercises.

Group activities are conducted for different purposes. For example, to the band members got some experience, which is the next step will be interesting to discuss.

What is sharing?

Schering - a special kind of conversation in the treatment groups . Sharing on organized after after psychodramatic action or exercise taken to share feelings and experiences encountered during this operation. At Sheringham, passing at the end of the group decided to share what was important today to the group.

During a sharing agreement is important to follow the classic rules: talk about themselves, not others, do not give advice, evaluations and interpretations of other group members.

And despite all the rules, the hardest part of sharing agreement - is to learn to share their feelings so that when it does not hurt the feelings of others. This is difficult to learn, but this skill is often useful in everyday life.

Does the group as a psychodramatic in action?

In psychodrama would say so, "involved in the role of viewers."

Psychodramatic action creates a protagonist and the director together on this process, referred to as a co-creation, co-authorship. The band members, who chose the role, and help them, and accordingly the other people are spectators. At the same time, the director can sometimes ask for part of the audience to join the action, to share feelings or something else.

What to do when I choose (invited) to play a role?

If you just simply need to do something that will ask the director with the protagonist. Usually, one needs to say some words or make some sort of action. When the protagonist in the drama there is a character who is almost always the director asks the protagonist at first to play the character himself. After that, the team member who performs this role, there is only more or less like this again. In principle, it is very easy, and it can make all people without exception. And if a team member has forgotten words, he can always ask again with the director.

What are the rules in psychodrama groups?

The rules are very simple. They aim to ensure that all team members were in it comfortably and safely. Basic rules are:

  • All team members agree on the confidentiality of what is going on and tells the group.
  • On the group can do to someone, or hurt in any whatsoever way, unpleasant. If, for example, created a scene in which one person beats another, this is a blow to a chair or a cushion, but never on the team member.
  • On the group should avoid evaluation, the advise and "interpretation" of other people. No one person can not fully know what the other, and what his life. And to assess, interpret and give advice - it means to put yourself a few "more well-versed in life" than other people, but it does not promote an atmosphere of equality and mutual respect of all participants in the group.


5. How does the psychodrama works?

How can I play the role of another person? I did not he? I do not know what he thinks?

Naturally, we do not know and can not know what he thinks and feels the other person. This is not required. But psychodrama we can play anyone, as a friend and one whom we have never seen in my life.

When the director proposes to play the protagonist of a man, he helps the protagonist to "enter into the role," and the protagonist can simply follow the instructions to the director. "Getting into the role" - it is like "dive into fantasy" about this man.

And it is interesting that this kind of "immersion in the fantasy" allow much better understanding of people and change the relationship with them in the "real reality" of our lives.

Why it may be useful to play different roles, especially those here ...?

There are at least two good explanations than good to play different roles in the psychodrama work.

First. As a child, thanks to our communication with relatives and friends, we learn specific ways for us to interact with people. Due to the fact that a person plays different roles in psychodrama, it is expanding its capacity to respond differently in different situations.

And the second one. Playing different roles, team members often live for yourself unusual emotional experience. And such an emotional experience in an appropriate volume, often has a salutary effect on the human psyche.

It is useful if something be a "spectator" psychodramatic work?

Be, as they say psychodramatist, "as the audience," just watch and emotionally integrated into what is happening is often no less useful, than to be a protagonist. The role of "spectator" at times can get everything you can give a psychodrama, except that in a little smaller scale.

There are members of the group that did not push myself to be a protagonist. And yet, they often say they get a lot of importance to themselves and without it, one only presence in the group.

What is the "tele"? What gang "tele"?

The classic definition is that the tele - is mutual empathy and two more people. Ie when two or more people are so "tuned" to each other that they could very well feel, empathize, understand, hear each other. And as a result - "to be together." In psychodrama develop skills of empathy is one of the most important values.

Group "tele" - this "tele" among all team members, including the director. Sometimes in groups, there are moments when the body is felt particularly strongly. And spend some time in this special "group atmosphere" is very important and "terapevtichnym" for many team members.

Than it is useful to play a difficult situation in a psychodrama?

Question: How participation in a psychodrama in quality протагониста influences the further life or the decision of the "played" situation?

Very big question, in any sense all is devoted it 3 year psychodrama training.

Psychodrama playing it is simple a "form" in which a considerable quantity of different therapeutic factors can be included.

But if to try to tell on-possibility simple will be approximately so: If in some situation the client feels discomfort it means that the mentality cannot "solve" in it some «problem which starts to solve». And development by mentality «a way to do a problem of this kind» will be result of psychodrama playing. That leads, at least, to discomfort decrease in such situations.


6. Questions about training

Than learning groups differ from therapy?

Study groups are usually larger in size, and in them, apart from classical psychodramatic process is still learning the theory and skills necessary to lead the future of psychodrama.

Can I go to school psychodrama, if I'm not a psychologist?

Yes, it is possible, but depending on the base of higher education at the end of training are assigned to different qualifications.

Participants who have completed the 2nd stage of psychodrama training with psychological or medical degree and complete the certification requirements, a certificate of successful completion MIGiP basic course and the qualification "psychodramatist."

If the winner does not need a college education, he was awarded the qualification "psychodramatherapeutist" This qualification, according to generally accepted international standard, gives him the opportunity to not psychotherapeutic psychodrama (that is, the group developing the skills training group, a group of self-discovery and personal growth, use of psychodrama in organizational consulting and project work, etc.)


Pavel Kornienko, Адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. Для просмотра адреса в вашем браузере должен быть включен Javascript., 2010-2012